Mapping the field

This section brings together key references in the field of privileged mobilities and migration. All papers have been suggested by members of the PriMob network. This is a non-exhaustive list and will be updated constantly.

For each topic, references are displayed in alphabetical order (of surname).

For more references, check out the Migration Research Hub search engine.

The notion of privilege in migration/mobilities

Benson, Michaela (2013) Postcoloniality and privilege in new lifestyle flows: The case of North Americans in Panama, Mobilities, 8 (3), 313-330

Croucher, Sheila (2012) Privileged Mobility in an Age of Globality, Societies, 2, 1–13

Leonard, Pauline & Katie Walsh (Eds.) (2018) British Migration: Privilege, Diversity and Vulnerability. London: Routledge

Privilege, race, ethnicity, whiteness

Armbruster, Heidi. (2010) ‘Realising the Self and ‘Developing the African’ German Immigrants in Namibia’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36 (8), 1229–1246

Bailey, Alison (1998) Privilege: expanding on Marilyn Frye's ‘Oppression’, Journal of Social Philosophy, 29 (3), 104–119

Fechter, Anne-Meike (2005). The ‘Other’ stares back Experiencing whiteness in Jakarta. Ethnography, 6 (1), 87–103

Higgins, Katie & Jessica Terruhn (2020) Kinship, whiteness and the politics of belonging among British migrants and Pākehā in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, e-publication

Koskela, Kaisu (2020) “Claims to a nation, dressing the part and other boundary making strategies by skilled migrants in response to ethnic categorization”, Social Identities

Knowles, Caroline & Douglas Harper (2009) Hong Kong: migrant lives, landscapes, and journeys. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Kunz, Sarah (2020) Expatriate, migrant? The social life of migration categories and the polyvalent mobility of race, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 46:11, 2145-2162

Leonard, Pauline (2008) Migrating identities: gender, whiteness and Britishness in post-colonial Hong Kong. Gender, Place & Culture, 15(1) 45-60

Privileged migration and (post)coloniality

Benson, Michaela & Karen O’Reilly (2018) Lifestyle migration and colonial traces in Malaysia and Panama. New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Coles, Anne & Katie Walsh (2010) From ‘Trucial State’ to ‘Postcolonial’ City? The Imaginative Geographies of British Expatriates in Dubai, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(8), 1317–1333

Fechter, Anne-Meike & Katie Walsh (2012) The new expatriates: postcolonial approaches to mobile professionals. Routledge

Fechter, Anne-Meike & Walsh, Katie (2010) Examining ‘Expatriate’ Continuities: Postcolonial Approaches to Mobile Professionals, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36 (8), 1197–1210

Fechter, Anne-Meike (2010) Gender, Empire, Global Capitalism: Colonial and Corporate Expatriate Wives, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36 (8), 1279–1297

Korpela, Mari (2010) A Postcolonial Imagination? Westerners Searching for Authenticity in India, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36 (8), 1299-1315

Kothari, Uma (2006) From Colonialism to development: Reflections of former Colonial Officers, Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 44 (1), 118–136

Kothari, Uma (2006) Spatial practices and imaginaries: Experiences of colonial officers and development professionals, Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 27( 3), 235–253

Leggett, William (2013) The flexible imagination: at Work in the transnational corporate offices of Jakarta, Indonesia. Lanham: Lexington

Lifestyle migration

Benson, Michaela & Karen O'Reilly (2009) Migration and the search for a better way of life: a critical exploration of lifestyle migration, The Sociological Review, 57 (4), 608-625

Conradson, David & Alan Latham (2005) ‘Friendship, networks and transnationality in a world city: Antipodean transmigrants in London’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31 (2), 287-305

Croucher, Sheila (2009) The Other Side of the Fence: American Migrants in Mexico; University of Texas Press: Austin, TX, USA

Hayes, Matthew (2018) Gringolandia: Lifestyle Migration under Late Capitalism, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press

Higgins, Katie (2018) Lifestyle migration and settler colonialism: the imaginative geographies of British migrants to Aotearoa New Zealand, Population, Space and Place, 24(3), e2112

Highly-skilled migration

Habti, Driss & Maria Elo (Eds.) (2019) Global Mobility of Highly Skilled People. Cham: Switzerland: Springer

Iredale, Robyn (2001) ‘The Migration of Professionals: Theories and Typologies’, International Migration, 39 (5), 7-26

Ryan, Louise & Jon Mulholland (2014) ‘Trading places: French highly skilled migrants negotiating mobility and emplacement in London’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40 (4), 584-600

Scott, Sam (2006) The Social Morphology of Skilled Migration: The Case of the British Middle Class in Paris, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32 (7), 1105-1129


Cranston, Sophie (2017) Expatriate as a ‘good’ Migrant: thinking through skilled international migrant categories, Population, Space and Place 23, e2058

Croucher, Sheila (2009) Migrants of privilege: the political transnationalism of Americans in Mexico, Identities, 16 (4), 463–491

Fechter, Anne-Meike (2007) Transnational lives: expatriates in Indonesia, Aldershot, Burlington: Ashgate

Klekowski von Koppenfels, Amanda (2014) Migrants or Expatriates? Americans in Europe, Palgrave Macmillan

Kunz, Sarah (2016) Privileged mobilities: Locating the expatriate in migration scholarship. Geography Compass, 10 (3), 89-101

Kunz, Sarah (2020) A business empire and its migrants: Royal Dutch Shell and the management of racial capitalism, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 45, 377-391

McNulty, Yvonne & Jan Selmer (Eds.) (2017) Research handbook of expatriates, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing

Polson, Erika (2016) Privileged Mobilities: Professional Migration, Geo-Social Media, and a New Global Middle Class, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Inc.

Walsh, Katie (2007) ‘It got very debauched, very Dubai!’ Heterosexual intimacy amongst single British expatriates, Social & Cultural Geography, 8 (4), 507–533

Walsh, Katie (2010) Negotiating migrant status in the emerging global city: Britons in Dubai. Encounters, 2, 235–255

Walsh, Katie (2012) Emotion and migration: British transnationals in Dubai. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 30 (1), 43–59

Walsh, Katie (2014) Placing Transnational Migrants through Comparative Research: British Migrant Belonging in Five GCC Cities, Population, Space and Place, 20 (1), 1–17

Investment migration

Boatcă, Manuela (2016) Commodification of citizenship. Global inequalities and the modern transmission of property. In: Wallerstein, Immanuel, Cristopher Chase-Dunn & Christian Suter (Eds.) Overcoming Global Inequalities, Routledge

Džankić, Jelena (2018) Immigrant investor programmes in the European Union (EU), Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 26 (1), 64–80

Gamlen, Alan, Chris Kutarna & Ashby Monk (2019) Citizenship as sovereign wealth: re‐thinking investor immigration, Global Policy, 10 (4), 527-541

Gaspar, Sofia & Fernando Ampudia de Haro (2020) Buying Citizenship? Chinese Golden Visa Migrants in Portugal, International Migration, 58 (3), 58-72

Kutz, William & Julia Lenhardt (2016) “Where to put the spare cash?” Subprime urbanization and the geographies of the financial crisis in the Global South, Urban Geography, 37 (6), 926-948

McGregor, Joann (2014) Sentimentality or speculation? Diaspora investment, crisis economies and urban transformation, Geoforum, 56, 172–181

Montezuma, Joaquim & Jennifer McGarrigle (2019) What motivates international homebuyers? Investor to lifestyle ‘migrants’ in a tourist city, Tourism Geographies, 21 (2), 214-234

Shachar, Ayelet & Rainer Baubock (2014) Should citizenship be for sale?, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies Working Paper

Shachar, Ayelet & Ran Hirschl (2014) On citizenship, states, and markets, Journal of Political Philosophy, 22 (2), 231-257

Surak, Kristin (2020) Millionaire mobility and the sale of citizenship, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, e-publication

Entrepreneurial migration

Haandrikman, Karen & Natasha Webster (2020) Migrant, woman and business owner: A heterogeneous group with diverse needs. Working Paper, Kulturgeografiskt Seminarium, Stockholm University

Van Rooij, Niek & Lusine Margaryan (2019) Integration of “Ideal Migrants”: Dutch lifestyle expat-preneurs in Swedish campgrounds, Rural Society 28 (3), 183-197

Webster, Natasha & Karen Haandrikman (2020) Exploring the Role of Privilege in Migrant Women’s Self-Employment, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, e-publication

Digital nomads

McElroy, Erin (2019) Digital nomads in siliconising Cluj: Material and allegorical double dispossession. Urban Studies, 57 (15), 3078-3094

Polson, Erika (2020) The aspirational class ‘mobility’ of digital nomads. In: Polson, Erika, Lynn Clark & Radhika Gajjala (Eds.) The Routledge Companion to Media & Class, 168–179, Routledge

Thompson, Beverly (2018) Digital nomads: employment in the online gig economy, Journal of Culture Politics & Innovation, 1-27

Retirement migration

Botterill, Kate (2016) Discordant Lifestyle Mobilities in East Asia: Privilege and Precarity of British Retirement in Thailand, Population, Space, and Place, 23 (5): e2011

Green, Paul (2015) Mobility Regimes in Practice: Later-life Westerners and Visa Runs in South-East Asia, Mobilities, 10 (5), 748-763

Privilege, mobilities and tourism

Novy, Johannes (2018) ‘Destination’ Berlin revisited. From (new) tourism towards a pentagon of mobility and place consumption, Tourism Geographies, 20:3, 418-442

Scuzzarello, Sarah (2020) Practising privilege. How settling in Thailand enables older Western migrants to enact privilege over local people, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 46 (8), 606-1628


Hayes, Matthew (2015) Moving south: the economic motives and structural contexts of North America’s emigrants in Cuenca, Ecuador, Mobilities, 10 (2), 267-284

Bohemian migration

Korpela, Mari (2020) Searching for a countercultural life abroad: neo-nomadism, lifestyle mobility or bohemian lifestyle migration?, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 46 (15), 3352-3369

Privileged migration and urban space

Cocola-Gant, Agustin & Antonio Lopez-Gay (2020) Transnational Gentrification, Tourism and the Formation of ‘Foreign Only’ Enclaves in Barcelona, Urban Studies 57 (15), 3025–43

Hayes, Matthew & Hila Zaban (2020) Transnational gentrification: The crossroads of transnational mobility and urban research, Urban Studies, 57 (15), 3009-3024

Meier, Lars (2015) Learning the city by experiences and images: German finance managers' encounters in London and Singapore. In: Meier, Lars (Ed.) Migrant Professionals in the City: Local Encounters, Identities and Inequalities, 59–74, Routledge